Hedonic Treadmill and Adaption Idea: A Transient Information

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Creating happiness is tougher than you suppose – most of the actions you suppose will make you happier… do little or no.

Having cash, an ideal household and nice children won’t, by itself, intrinsically deliver happiness. Most of the objectives that folks attempt for are the identical means.

See what Daniel Kahneman, founding father of Behavioral Economics needed to say about happiness:

“Persons are uncovered to many messages that encourage them to consider {that a} change of weight, scent, hair coloration (or protection), automobile, garments, or many different facets will produce a marked enchancment of their happiness. Our analysis suggests an ethical, and a warning: Nothing that you just concentrate on will make as a lot distinction as you suppose.”

Then again, creating happiness could be simpler than you ever imagined – most of the actions you ignore, like cultivating gratitude, do very a lot even with little effort.

Hedonic Treadmill: The Video

Would you relatively watch a video on the Hedonic Treadmill?

We’ve summarized the very best methods to keep away from the pitfalls of the Hedonic Treadmill and turned it right into a video that presents the important thing factors and methods. Get pleasure from!

The ability of adaptation.

Think about you’re a school soccer star, on observe to get drafted by a professional group. In the future you get into an accident. You’ve been paralyzed by the waist down.

You’d be proper in anticipating that you just’d really feel horrible, like every little thing you’d been residing for was now gone, an unreachable impossibility.

However slowly, your needs and expectations will modify. You’ll cease dreaming of fame and soccer, and begin dreaming of different, extra regular issues, like getting married or shopping for a home. Little question, you’d have had a happier life in case you hadn’t been paralyzed. However don’t negate your skill to adapt.

After a couple of years, many paraplegics really feel virtually nearly as good as they did earlier than being disabled. Many really feel virtually nearly as good inside a couple of months. People are remarkably adaptable – how else would we now have taken over the entire world?

The issue with adaptation.

Think about you’re a working class Joe. You’ve obtained a spouse and two children. Greater than anything, you wish to get promoted. As a result of when you do, every little thing will change – you’ll be capable to substitute your 10-year-old automobile, purchase new garments on your spouse, take your children on trip.

Being hard-working, you get that promotion. For a couple of days, perhaps even a couple of weeks, you’re residing in wonderland. You’re pleased.

However then you definitely discover your neighbor’s automobile – a shiny $35,000 Lexus. You need it.

Greater than anything, you wish to get promoted. As a result of when you do, every little thing will change.

Being hardworking, you get that promotion. For a couple of days, perhaps even a couple of weeks, you’re residing in wonderland.

However then… and on, and on, and on.

Sure, as we get extra well-known, extra highly effective, extra lovely, and extra rich we get happier however a lot lower than we’d count on – a lot lower than we’d hope.

It’s known as a rat race for a purpose.

The adaptiveness of adaptation.

“Computerized habituation is adaptive as a result of it permits fixed stimuli [your beautiful spouse or big house] to fade into the background. Thus, sources stay accessible to take care of novel stimuli [your slowing computer or a promotion opportunity], that are almost certainly to require fast consideration. The happiness system is thus hypothesized to replicate adjustments in circumstances relatively than the general desirability of the circumstances themselves.”

– Ed Diener, The Science of Properly-Being8

Think about that, for you, this was unfaithful. That each one you cared about had been absolute ranges.

I assure you’d change into a social parasite.

Our materials way of life is a number of lots of of instances larger than simply 5 thousand years in the past.

The fabric way of life of a homeless individual in modern-day Manhattan is a number of dozens of instances greater than the wealthiest of kings ten thousand years in the past.

If all you cared about had been absolute ranges, you’d be pleased residing as an unproductive hobo – your rubber sneakers and tv set would maintain you cheerful and occupied as we speak, tomorrow, and till you died.

So thank goodness we adapt and have limitless ambition, with out which we might have been happy searching animals and residing in caves forever, by no means inventing medication, computer systems, or vehicles.

Extra realistically, with out the hedonic treadmill, our species would have gone extinct – our ancestors would have died.

I want I used to be simply being dramatic. Not so. Two examples from the caveman period:

1. You’re thirsty. That thirst is a novel stimulus, so your mind pays extra consideration to it and will increase the reward for consuming water (e.g. consider how good it feels to drink water after arduous train in scorching climate). That’s due to hedonic adaptation. With out it, you’d have died in not less than two other ways:

  1. Slightly than your want to drink water being dependent in your thirst, it could all the time be the identical (or be excessive at sure fastened intervals). I do know, arduous to think about. The result’s that in these few crucial moments when you really want to drink, you’d solely devour a small quantity if any.
  2. If the mind determined to unravel that drawback by all the time sustaining a excessive want for water, you’d die from overhydration (consuming an excessive amount of water).

2. You need standing. So that you spend your free time making new buddies, working towards your searching, and experimenting with instruments. With out adaptation:

  1. You’d have been happy having only one buddy. Within the wild, that’s harmful.
  2. Everytime you had been full, you’d have sat round in bliss – pleased that each one was good on the planet. When robust instances got here, you’d have been utterly unprepared. Dying.

I’m not an anthropologist – a few of the particulars may be off, however the general image is obvious – hedonic adaptation is important for progress and survival.

The issue is after we let our limitless pursuit of progress overwhelm and block our quest to seek out happiness. This places us on the hedonic treadmill.

We are able to have each – happiness and progress, however for that, we first have to grasp what issues maintain us on the hedonic treadmill. This isn’t me moralizing – I gained’t inform you what ought to or shouldn’t make you cheerful.

That is dozens of years of science carried out on lots of of 1000’s of individuals talking for itself. Some issues simply don’t make folks pleased, irrespective of how a lot they may suppose or need these issues to.

“One of the vital essential and rising prices of the fashionable lifestyle is ‘culturalfraud’: the promotion of pictures and beliefs of ‘the nice life’ that serve the financial system however don’t meet psychological wants, nor replicate social realities.” -Richard Eckersley

There are three robust traces of proof which assist the hedonic treadmill idea:

  1. A rising record of conventional life pursuits are being discovered to have zero to solely small correlations with happiness, well-being, and life satisfaction. These embody: magnificence, cash, sunshine, training, kids, and selection.
  2. A rising variety of longitudinal research which have tracked folks over the many years of their life have discovered that as their life circumstances have modified, their happiness has remained principally unchanged (presumably as a result of they spent their time centered on deceptive objectives, like cash and standing).
  3. A rising variety of research carried out on twins have proven that genetic elements might account for as a lot as half of 1’s subjective well-being. That’s, regardless of some twins being a lot richer than their counterparts, their common stage of happiness was comparable. These three traces of proof taken collectively point out that the profitable pursuit of happiness requires a departure from the enterprise as ordinary way of living. That getting married, shopping for a home, and having children aren’t sufficient. That in search of wealth and fame is a dead-end. That the profitable pursuit of happiness requires deliberately pursuing counter-intuitive life methods.

Can happiness actually be measured?

Happiness can’t be completely measured, however it may be roughly measured – precisely sufficient that a number of western nations are actually contemplating adopting Bhutan’s Gross Nationwide Happiness index – a quantitative try at assessing the happiness and well-being of total populations.

Listed below are two issues to think about:

  1. Essentially the most trendy measures of happiness are a number of elements extra correct than their older counterparts. As scientists be taught extra about happiness, their measuring instruments enhance. Sure, happiness is subjective – however that doesn’t imply it may possibly’t be roughly measured.
  2. These measures correlate nicely with different measures of happiness, which could be extra objectively assessed. For instance, The Satisfaction with Life Scale correlates with expression of optimistic emotion, incidence of melancholy, and impressions from family and friends. Different scales correlate nicely with stress ranges, lifespan, depth and frequency of each optimistic and unfavorable feelings, revenue, incidence of divorce, social capital, and extra.

What this implies is that on the very least, measures of happiness are not directly measuring all the above variables (e.g. incidence of divorce and frequency of optimistic emotion). In different phrases, scientists can predict how lengthy you’ll dwell, what your revenue can be, and the way doubtless you’re to break up primarily based on their estimate of your stage of happiness. I care sufficient about these issues to take happiness science critically, even when there’s numerous room for enchancment. Do you?

The proof:

What issues cease giving us happiness due to adaptation?


“Magnificence would possibly deliver happiness, however happiness all the time brings magnificence.” – Kevyn Aucoin

You would possibly suppose being good-looking or lovely would strongly influence your shallowness, social connections, and happiness… however it doesn’t.

The nice-looking are on common 7% happier than the bad-looking.1,2

The lots of of hours of weight-reduction plan, going to the fitness center, and placing on make-up (or flexing, for males) improve happiness by a colossal 7%.

The extra enticing you change into, the extra enticing the folks you are inclined to hangout with. We examine ourselves to these we spend probably the most time with. All we care if our buddies suppose we’re enticing, not the random ugly stranger on the road. The very best strategy would appear to be each rising your ranges of attractiveness whereas making buddies with ugly folks 😉

Changing into extra enticing means that you can entice extra lovely companions, however that skill poorly correlates with happiness. First, your expectations improve. Second, after a couple of weeks or month, you’ll start to take the fantastic thing about your companion increasingly as a right. Third, the traits most correlated with relationship success and marital satisfaction are unrelated to bodily look. They’re persona traits, like self-compassion, extraversion, gratitude, and optimism.

The one exception could also be city females.

“City settings (however not rural settings) promote a“free market” of relationships through which attractiveness, a foundation for private alternative, is a crucial determinant of social and psychological well-being.

– Does Attractiveness Purchase Happiness3

Having lived in NYC, I agree. As a toddler residing in suburban American, I had no alternative however to play with my neighbors. They’d have performed with me no matter my look.

Once I lived within the metropolis I didn’t even know my neighbor’s names. If I used to be super-attractive, which will have been totally different.

In an city setting, attractiveness helps type connections, particularly in case you’re feminine. In city settings, the stress to be lovely is powerful, principally in case you’re feminine.

So in case you dwell in a metropolis, are feminine, and your weight is supplying you with nervousness, drop some pounds. However that takes months and mountains of willpower. Do one thing simpler.

If changing into extra enticing is one in every of your objectives, it’s since you need extra social approval. You need extra shallowness, extra consideration, and extra smiles directed your means. I perceive. I wish to be extra enticing too.

However there may be a better means. Make higher buddies. Be attention-grabbing. Be zestful. Volunteer. Be part of golf equipment. Be passionate. Cease being annoying.

What about children?

In case your child is fats and that offers her nervousness, that’s an issue. But when she has that nervousness since you maintain telling her she must drop some pounds, it’s possible you’ll wish to cease. For the common youngster, bodily look has no correlation with happiness.4

Takeaway: Ugly persons are pleased too.


“Cash typically prices an excessive amount of.” – Ralph Waldo Emerson

Cash has a small correlation with well-being. These with an revenue larger than 70% of different People are roughly 20% happier than these within the backside 10%.5 Previous a household revenue of $10,000, revenue has a trivial correlation with well-being, accounting for simply 2% of the variance in well-being.22 Nonetheless, unemployment can have a long-term, unfavorable impact on life satisfaction amongst as much as half of the inhabitants.23.24

Cash buys happiness and will increase life satisfaction. Simply check out the graph under – as revenue will increase, so does happiness.5

Ah my apologies, that’s the incorrect graph. I forgot the primary rule of statistics: mislead, mislead, mislead. Let’s change the dimensions to make the connection look stronger.

That’s higher – now we see a transparent relationship. More cash = extra happiness.

In keeping with a multi-year, nationwide survey of greater than 50,000 People, the common individual with a household revenue of $60,000 is about 20% happier than somebody with a household revenue of $15,000.5

How can the distinction be so small? So small that I needed to manipulate the graph? The poor are extra resilient than we thought; the wealthy extra bold and overworked. As an individual’s wealth rises, their skill to savor the mundane facets of life decreases – they arrive to require increasingly.6,21

In my earlier life as a advisor, the excessive pay got here with lengthy hours and excessive stress. I used to be working 60 hours every week.

It’s the identical for all high-paying jobs. Lawyer, physician, funding banker, or advisor – in case you’re getting paid above common, you’re additionally working longer than common.

Was the additional 20 hours of labor every week value a 20% improve in life satisfaction? No.

A 5 minutes a day, half-hour every week gratitude journal may have executed the identical. Extra even.

Let’s get geeky.

When evaluating a call, estimate the potential profit and the potential price. If the profit is excessive and the associated fee low, nice. If it’s the opposite means round, keep away.

In on a regular basis life, that is known as frequent sense. On the earth of enterprise, this calculation is known as return on funding (ROI).

A excessive paying job will price about 20 further hours every week in extra work and stress. Its potential reward is a few 20% improve in life satisfaction and happiness.

A gratitude journal will price about half-hour every week. Its potential reward is a ten to twenty% improve in life satisfaction and happiness – let’s say 15% for this calculation.

In different phrases, the ROI of a gratitude journal is 30 instances the ROI of a excessive paying job.

In different phrases, it’s best to give up your annoying job and begin spending some extra time being grateful. Or don’t give up. A gratitude journal takes lower than half-hour every week.

Takeaway: Materialism is inefficient.

Nonetheless, the one exception is unemployment. Even years after getting laid off, many contributors of a 15-year research had been nonetheless much less pleased than earlier than – that’s, they had been unable to totally adapt to their new circumstances. Worse, the impact was nonetheless current amongst a lot of those that had been re-employed. That means that unemployment is likely one of the strongest psychological shocks on the planet, akin to the loss of life of 1’s partner.

Nonetheless, for the common individual, the long-term influence of unemployment is small – reducing life satisfaction by 2 to 4%.23,24

Excessive responders characterize roughly 30% of the inhabitants.


“A day with out sunshine is like, you understand, night time.” – Steve Martin

Bear in mind the final time you had a heat soup or apple cider throughout the winter? Or a chilly soda or beer throughout summer season? It felt good. Due to the distinction.

There isn’t any scorching with out chilly; no chilly with out scorching.

I’m not getting philosophical. Humidity after a transparent day is correlated with lowered vigor and happiness.7 Sunshine after a cloudy day is correlated with elevated temper.9

However sunshine after sunshine is correlated with nothing.

As a result of if every single day was heat and sunny, you’d get used to it.

A research of 1,993 People residing in California, Michigan, and Ohio discovered no correlation between location and life satisfaction. That’s, though folks within the midwest complained about their poor climate, though additionally they stated they’d be happier in the event that they lived below California’s shiny solar, though Californian’s stated that their shiny solar makes them happier, Midwesterners had been simply as pleased as Californians.10

We tend to take issues as a right. The climate isn’t any exception. A 2006 research discovered that the one time rising temperature was correlated with rising temper was in spring when the reminiscence of chilly winter was nonetheless in thoughts.11

Climate can be not that essential. More often than not, we’re indoors utterly unconcerned concerning the temperature and humidity. Within the California research, the climate was ranked final in significance out of 11 objects. Would you relatively have good job prospects, a vibrant social life, monetary safety, or good climate?

I’d relatively have the primary three.

There’s one exception – residing in a particularly chilly area with under common ranges of sunshine is correlated with lowered wellbeing.12 In locations like Alaska and Greenland seasonal affective dysfunction (SAD) is way more frequent. SAD is melancholy introduced on by poor climate and lack of daylight.

Takeaway: Keep away from actually chilly and darkish locations. Every little thing else just isn’t a lot totally different.


“Educating the thoughts with out educating the guts isn’t any training in any respect.” ― Aristotle

Instructional attainment has a particularly small correlation with well-being. In a single research of two,310 twins, training accounted for lower than 2% of the variance in well-being.22 A newer research of two,727 People discovered a barely bigger however nonetheless tiny correlation between training and well-being.13

I like to be taught – I learn new analysis papers and books each week. Does that love of studying correlate with elevated life satisfaction?

Generally. A survey of two,727 People discovered that these with a excessive stage of training had been twice as doubtless than these with a low stage of training to be very pleased.13

However that very same survey discovered that these with a low stage of training had been 47% extra prone to be the happiest than these with a excessive stage of training.13

I’d relatively be happiest than very pleased. It appears it could be higher for me to take pleasure in, relatively than to all the time query.

Information is energy. Nobody stated that energy is happiness.

Information teases, with the hope of the grand issues our lives could be, but in addition with the despair of the grand issues our lives aren’t.

The character energy “love of studying” has one of many weakest associations with well-being and life satisfaction, being outdone by strengths like compassion, gratitude, and zest.14

These outcomes have been confirmed by a meta-analysis of over eight surveys measuring over 100,000 folks.15

The very pleased are probably the most economically productive – earning money and driving innovation.

The happiest persons are probably the most socially productive – spending extra of their time on growing their relationships and their communities.

So is a excessive stage of training value it? For those who’re simply searching for happiness, then no. You don’t want a PhD, Masters, and even an Undergraduate diploma.

One school member used to chide proud PhD college students by saying, “I don’t see why you suppose it’s such a terrific accomplishment — all my buddies have a Ph.D!”

Demographics are poorly correlated with life satisfaction.

All of us need greater than happiness – we additionally need that means and function. Many individuals select to have children to fill that want. I’d relatively be taught as a lot as I can and share that data with all of you.

For that I’ll have to make a sacrifice.

I might have to decide on ‘very pleased’ over ‘happiest’.

Oh the sacrifice ;).

Takeaway: Low cost training is the very best training.


“Mother and father are sad. I’ve checked, and for each subgroup of the inhabitants I analyzed, mother and father report being much less pleased than equally located nonparents.”– Betsy Stevenson

Mother and father additionally make a sacrifice – in selecting to boost kids, they (deliberately or not) are selecting that means over happiness.

I’ve seemed on the information myself – there’s a unfavorable correlation between happiness and having children.17,18,19 Additionally they confirmed that youngsters lower relatively than improve marital satisfaction.

Two latest research counsel that oldsters are literally happier than non-parents, and that their research are extra correct than the earlier ones.

I don’t suppose it’s that clean-cut. This energetic debate signifies that there isn’t any clear correlation both means.

Perhaps children will make you cheerful. Perhaps they gained’t. Even when they make your happier… it most likely gained’t be by a lot.

So in case you’re seeking to have kids to enhance your marriage or to make you cheerful, like 76% of Pew respondents, who answered that one of many foremost causes for his or her having children was the ‘pleasure of kids’, it’s possible you’ll be making a mistake.

Give it some thought – you’ll spend 1000’s of hours and lots of of 1000’s of {dollars} elevating your kids. For those who spent that very same time meditating, exercising, and strengthening your social relationships, and studying new abilities, you’d be assured to be happier.

However there may be extra to life than happiness, which might be why regardless of the info, Betsy determined to have children.

Three latest research counsel that having kids will increase that means and function in life. And naturally – all of us wish to depart a legacy. For some, it will likely be our kids, for others our books, and for others our corporations.

In order for you kids to be your legacy, and also you’re keen to sacrifice your time, cash, and peace of thoughts for it, I applaud you. I want your children to fund my social safety.

Takeaway: Children are for that means and function. Buddies and holidays are for happiness.

*Satirically, throughout all of those research, males with kids had larger well-being than girls with kids. I’m so glad I’m a person. Not solely do I not have to present beginning, I don’t need to have intervals , or change any as many diapers.

**For those who’d like to higher perceive how, on common, having children can presumably scale back happiness, I like to recommend the e book Stumbling on Happiness by Daniel Gilbert.


“The expansion of choices and alternatives for alternative has three, associated, unlucky results. It signifies that selections require extra effort. It makes errors extra doubtless. It makes the psychological penalties of errors extra extreme.” – Barry Schwartz

A couple of months in the past I used to be having a quarter-life disaster. That’s what gave beginning to this weblog.

Quarter-life crises are a brand new phenomenon. So are mid-life crises. So is the truth that the common individual will change careers seven to 10 instances over their lifetime.20

Why the adjustments? The burden of alternative and pains of prospects unreached.

Some alternative is nice. It provides beginning to individuality. It provides us a sense of management.

An excessive amount of alternative is unhealthy. It overwhelms.

From the e book Paradox of Alternative:

“I desire a pair of denims—32–28,” I stated. “Would you like them slim match, straightforward match, relaxed match, dishevelled, or further dishevelled?” she replied. “Would you like them stonewashed, acid-washed, or distressed? Would you like them button-fly or zipper-fly? Would you like them light or common?”

I used to be shocked… I made a decision to attempt all of them…

The denims I selected turned out simply positive, however it occurred to me that day that purchasing a pair of pants shouldn’t be a daylong challenge. By vastly increasing the vary of selections, they’d created an issue. Earlier than these choices had been accessible, buying denims was a five-minute affair. Now it was a fancy choice through which I used to be pressured to take a position time, power, and no small quantity of self-doubt, nervousness, and dread.”

And that’s simply pants.

We of Gen X and Y know we are able to journey the world, save ravenous kids, rise the company ladder, and dream large goals. Our worlds are not restricted to the city we grew up in. The chances are thrilling.

The chances are additionally crushing. With each fork come dozens of selections that want analysis. With each alternative made, there are dozens of prospects turned away, ready to fester into remorse.

With energy and alternative come duty – the requirement to judge increasingly selections. It may be draining.

Quickly I can be shifting. Part of me needs to comb via the info and create sophisticated statistical fashions to rank all of my selections. Part of me is aware of that the info is a curse, as a result of NYC or San Francisco, Singapore or Boston, there are folks. So long as there are folks, I can be pleased.

Takeaway: Simplify. Uncertainty feels unhealthy, simplicity feels good.

Lastly, one confirmed means to enhance your happiness and life satisfaction is to concentrate on objectives that really matter. To get began, try this FREE printable worksheet and a step-by-step course of that can allow you to set efficient SMART objectives.

1. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Jason Abrevaya, 2011. “”Magnificence Is the Promise of Happiness”?,” NBER Working Papers 17327, Nationwide Bureau of Financial Analysis, Inc.2. World Happiness Report, 2012

3. PLAUT, V. C., ADAMS, G., & ANDERSON, S. L. (2009). Does attractiveness purchase happiness? “It is determined by the place you’re from”. Private Relationships, 16(4), 619-630. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2009.01242.x

4. Holder, M. D., & Coleman, B. (2008). The contribution of temperament, recognition, and bodily look to kids’s happiness. Journal Of Happiness Research, 9(2), 279-302. doi:10.1007/s10902-007-9052-7

5. Basic Social Surveys, 1972-2006

6. Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E. W., Petrides, Okay. V., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Cash Giveth, Cash Taketh Away The Twin Impact of Wealth on Happiness. Psychological Science, 21(6), 759-763.

7. Sanders, J. L., & Brizzolara, M. S. (1982). RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WEATHER AND MOOD. Journal Of Basic Psychology, 107(1), 155.

8. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). 17 Subjective Properly-Being: The Science of Happiness and Life Satisfaction. Oxford handbook of optimistic psychology, 187.

9. Howarth, E. E., & Hoffman, M. S. (1984). A multidimensional strategy to the connection between temper and climate. British Journal Of Psychology, 75(1), 15.

10. Schkade, D. A., & Kahneman, D. (1998). Does Dwelling in California Make Folks Completely happy?. Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 9(5), 340.

11. Aaronson, L. (2006). Happiness Is a Seaside, Generally. Psychology Immediately, 39(1), 27.

12. Rehdanz, Okay., & Maddison, D. (2005). Local weather and happiness. Ecological Economics, 52(1), 111-125. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.06.015

13. World Values Survey Databank, United States [1982], United States [1990], United States [1995], United States [1999]

14. Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Strengths of character and well-being. Journal of Social and Medical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619.

16. Oishi, S., Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (2007). The optimum stage of well-being: Can we be too pleased? Views on Psychological Science, 2, 346-360.

17. Clark, A.E. and Oswald, A.J. (2002a). “Properly-Being in Panels”, mimeo, College of Warwick.

18. Rafael Di Tella & Robert J. MacCulloch & Andrew J. Oswald, 2003. “The Macroeconomics of Happiness,” The Overview of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 809-827, November.

19. Alesina, Alberto, Rafael Di Tella and Robert MacCulloch. “Inequality And Happiness: Are Europeans And People Totally different?,” Journal of Public Economics, 2004, v88(9-10,Aug), 2009-2042.

20. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Worker Tenure Abstract, 2010, USDL-10-1278

21. Easterlin, R. A. (2001). Earnings and happiness: In direction of a unified idea. The financial journal, 111(473), 465-484.

22. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7(3), 186-189.

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24. Baird, B. M., Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2010). Life satisfaction throughout the lifespan: Findings from two nationally consultant panel research. Social indicators analysis, 99(2), 183-203.


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